Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) measures how broad the face is in relation to the height of the face.FWHR was only discovered in the last few years but in that short amount of time we've found that fWHR is correlated with such things as dominance, aggression, short term attraction, fighting ability, financial success, trustworthiness, status, etc.
There are two different ways to measure fWHR.
Some articles (e.g. Stirrat & Perrett 2010; Lefevre et al. 2012; Lefevre et al. 2013; Tsujimura & Banissy 2013) measured fWHR as bizygomatic width divided by the distance from the upper eyelids to the upper lip.
Other articles (e.g. Weston et al. 2007; Carré & McCormick 2008; Loehr & O'Hara 2013; Valentine et al. 2014) measured fWHR as byzygomatic width divided by the distance from the nasion to the prosthion.
- Carré, J. M., & McCormick, C. M. (2008). In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275(1651), 2651-2656.
- Lefevre, C. E., Lewis, G. J., Bates, T. C., Dzhelyova, M., Coetzee, V., Deary, I. J., & Perrett, D. I. (2012). No evidence for sexual dimorphism of facial width-to-height ratio in four large adult samples. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(6), 623-627.
- Lefevre, C. E., Lewis, G. J., Perrett, D. I., & Penke, L. (2013). Telling facial metrics: facial width is associated with testosterone levels in men. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34(4), 273-279. "Measure of fWHR: horizontal lines represent the distance between the upper lip and highest point of the eyelids (upper face height), vertical lines represent the maximum distance between the left and right facial boundary (bizygomatic width). fWHR was calculated as width divided by height."
- Loehr, J., & O'Hara, R. B. (2013). Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not.
- Stirrat, M., & Perrett, D. I. (2010). Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust male facial width and trustworthiness. Psychological science, 21(3), 349-354.
- Tsujimura, H., & Banissy, M. J. (2013). Human face structure correlates with professional baseball performance: insights from professional Japanese baseball players. Biology letters, 9(3), 20130140.
- Valentine, K. A., Li, N. P., Penke, L., & Perrett, D. I. (2014). Judging a Man by the Width of His Face: The Role of Facial Ratios and Dominance in Mate Choice at Speed-Dating Events. Psychological science, 25(3), 806-811. "Following Weston et al.’s (2007) procedures, Psychomorph was used to calculate the ratio of the distance between the top of the lip and lower part of the brow (facial height) and the distance between the most lateral points of the face by the ears (bizygomatic width) for each male face. Bizygomatic width was divided by facial height to determine fWHR."
- Weston, E. M., Friday, A. E., & Liò, P. (2007). Biometric evidence that sexual selection has shaped the hominin face. PLoS One, 2(8), e710.